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PSEUDO-CHAPTER One

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———

[01c01t] Robert G. Henricks

As for the Way, the Way that can be spoken of is not the constant Way;

As for names, the name that can be named is not the constant name.

The nameless is the beginning of the ten thousand things;

The named is the mother of the ten thousand things.

Therefore, those constantly without desires, by this means will perceive its subtlety.

Those constantly with desires, by this means will see only that which they yearn for and seek.

These two together emerge;

They have different names yet they're called the same;

That which is even more profound than the profound -

The gateway of all subtleties.

———

[01c02t] John C. H. Wu

TAO can be talked about, but not the Eternal Tao.

Names can be named, but not the Eternal Name.

As the origin of heaven-and-earth, it is nameless:

As "the Mother" of all things, it is nameable.

So, as ever hidden, we should look at its inner essence:

As always manifest, we should look at its outer aspects.

These two flow from the same source, though differently named;

And both are called mysteries.

The Mystery of mysteries is the Door of all essence.

———

[01c03t] D. C. Lau

The way that can be spoken of

Is not the constant way;

The name that can be named

Is not the constant name.

The nameless was the beginning of heaven and earth;

The named was the mother of the myriad creatures.

Hence always rid yourself of desires in order to observe its secrets;

But always allow yourself to have desires in order to observe its manifestations.

These two are the same

But diverge in name as they issue forth.

Being the same they are called mysteries,

Mystery upon mystery -

The gateway of the manifold secrets.

———

[01c04t] R. L. Wing

The Tao that can be expressed

Is not the Tao of the Absolute.

The name that can be named

Is not the name of the Absolute.

The nameless originated Heaven and Earth.

The named is the Mother of All Things.

Thus, without expectation,

One will always perceive the subtlety;

And, with expectation,

One will always perceive the boundary.

The source of these two is identical, Yet their names are different.

Together they are called profound,

Profound and mysterious,

The gateway to the Collective Subtlety.

———

[01c05t] Ren Jiyu

The Tao that can be spoken of is not the eternal Tao;

The name that can be named is not the eternal name.

The nameless is the origin of Heaven and Earth;

The named is the root of all things.

Therefore, the subtleties of Tao are always apprehended through their formlessness,

The limits of things are always seen through their form.

These two (the form and the formless) have the same source but different names.

Both of them can be called deep and profound,

The deepest and the most profound, the door of all mysteries.

———

[01c06t] Gia-fu Feng

The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao.

The name that can be named is not the eternal name.

The nameless is the beginning of heaven and earth.

The named is the mother of ten thousand things.

Ever desireless, one can see the mystery.

Ever desiring, one can see the manifestations.

These two spring from the same source but differ in name; this appears as darkness.

Darkness within darkness.

The gate to all mystery.

———

[01c07t] Lok Sang Ho

Ways that can be spelled out

cannot be the eternal way.

Names that can be named

must change with time and place.

Emptiness is the origin of heaven and earth;

Existence is the mother of everything that had a birth.

Appreciate Emptiness, that we may see the nature of the Dao's versatility;

Appreciate Existence, that we may see the extent of the Dao's possibilities.

These two, Emptiness and Existence, came from the same source.

Though they bear different names, they serve the same mystical cause.

A mystery within a mystery,

such is the gateway to all versatility.

———

[01c08t] Xiaolin Yang

The DAO can be talked about, but that is not the ever-lasting DAO.

The NAME can be called, but that is not the ever-lasting NAME.

Nothingness is called the origin of the world.

Existence is called the root of everything.

Therefore,

you should stay in nothingness if you want to see the real essence of the world;

you should stay in existence if you want to see the different entities of the world.

They are from the same source but named differently: both are called XUAN.

Understanding the XUANs is the key to the kingdom of truth.

———

[01c09t] Walter Gorn Old, MARKING OUT THE PATH

The Tao that is the subject of discussion is not the true Tao.

The quality which can be named is not its true attribute.

That which was before Heaven and Earth is called the Non-Existent.

The Existent is the mother of all things.

Therefore doth the wise man seek after the first mystery of the Non-Existent, while seeing in that which exists the Ultimates thereof.

The Non-Existent and Existent are identical in all but name.

This identity of apparent opposites I call the profound, the great deep, the open door of bewilderment.

———

[01c10t] James Legge

The Tao that can be trodden is not the enduring and unchanging Tao.

The name that can be named is not the enduring and unchanging name.

(Conceived of as) having no name, it is the Originator of heaven and earth;

(conceived of as) having a name, it is the Mother of all things.

Always without desire we must be found,

If its deep mystery we would sound;

But if desire always within us be,

Its outer fringe is all that we shall see.

Under these two aspects, it is really the same;

but as development takes place, it receives the different names.

Together we call them the Mystery.

Where the Mystery is the deepest is the gate of all that is subtle and wonderful.

———

[01c11t] David Hinton

A Way become Way isn't the perennial Way.

A name become name isn't the perennial name:

the named is mother to the ten thousand things,

but the unnamed is origin to all heaven and earth.

In perennial nonbeing you see mystery, and in perennial being you see appearance.

Though the two are one and the same, once they arise, they differ in name.

One and the same they're called dark-enigma,

dark-enigma deep within dark-enigma,

gateway of all mystery.

———

[01c12t] Chichung Huang

A tao that can be spoken about

Is not the constant Tao;

A name that can be named

Is not the constant name.

Nonbeing names

The ten thousand things' beginning;

Being names

The ten thousand things' mother.

Therefore, constantly be desireless,

Whereby to observe its minutiae;

Constantly be desirous,

Whereby to observe where it ends.

The two issued from the same origin,

And, though different in name,

Refer to the same thing.

Deep and remote, doubly deep and remote,

Gate of multitudinous minutiae.

———

[01c13t] Ellen M. Chen

Tao that can be spoken of,

Is not the Everlasting (ch'ang) Tao.

Name that can be named,

Is not the Everlasting (ch'ang) name.

Nameless (wu-ming), the origin (shih) of heaven and earth;

Named (yu-ming), the mother (mu) of ten thousand things.

Alternate,

Non-being (wu), to name (ming) the origin (shih) of heaven and earth;

Being (yu), to name (ming) the mother of ten thousand things.

Therefore, always (ch'ang) without desire (wu-yό),

In order to observe (kuan) the hidden mystery (miao);

Always (ch'ang) with desire (yu-yό),

In order to observe the manifestations (chiao).

Alternate,

Therefore, by the Everlasting (ch'ang) Non-Being (wu),

We desire (yό) to observe (kuan) its hidden mystery (miao);

By the Everlasting (ch'ang) Being (yu),

We desire (yό) to observe the manifestations (chiao).

These two issue from the same origin,

Though named differently.

Both are called the dark (hsόan).

Dark and even darker,

The door to all hidden mysteries (miao).

———

[01c14t] Lee Sun Chen Org

Tao (Truth) can be talked about (theorized in any manner each person considers viable), though hardly of these theories will be eternally valid;

Names (Descriptions) can be ascribed [to Tao in any fashion each person deems workable], yet hardly of these names (descriptions) will last forever.

The beginning of the Universe (Heaven and Earth) [is beyond us, so in all honesty it] is indescribable;

[Nevertheless,] whatever is namable (describable) by us served as the mother (origin) of [our knowledge of] myriad (all and every) things and creatures.

Accordingly,

I constantly refrain from my selfish (subjective) desires for the purpose of exploring its (Nature's) manifested (apparent) wonder;

I also constantly maintain my will [to seek objective knowledge] in order to pursue its (Nature's) deep-seated enigma.

These two (Tao and Te) were originated from the same source, but they were described with different names by us.

They are both depicted as profound [as each is intricate in its own right];

The profundity (complexity) intensifies as we fathom its mystery further and deeper;

Eventually, it will [lead us] to the gateway of all mysteries.

———

[01c15t] Tien Cong Tran

The way that can be talked about is not the eternal Way.

The name that can be named is not the eternal name.

"Nothing" is the name of the origin of Heaven and Earth.

"Being" is the name of "the mother" of all things.

So, in eternal Nothing, we should look at the wonderfulness of the Way.

In eternal Being, we should look at its outer aspects.

These two flow from the same source, though differently named; and both are called mysteries.

Mysterious and more mysterious.

That is the door of all wonders.

———

[01c16t] Thomas Z. Zhang

If Tao can be described, then it is not general Tao.

If a name can be denned, then it is not a general name.

The invisible is the origin of the universe.

The visible is the mother of all things.

By constantly thinking the invisible, we understand the universe;

By constantly observing the visible, we can see how the natural laws work.

Thinking and observing are two different things.

Yet they serve the same goal: to theorize.

Theorizing and evolving these theories is the gate to marvels.

———

[01c17t] Arthur Waley

The Way that can be told of is not an Unvarying Way;

The names that can be named are not unvarying names.

It was from the Nameless that Heaven and Earth sprang;

The named is but the mother that rears the ten thousand creatures, each after its kind.

Truly, 'Only he that rids himself forever of desire can see the Secret Essences';

He that has never rid himself of desire can see only the Outcomes.

These two things issued from the same mould, but nevertheless are different in name.

This 'same mould' we can but call the Mystery,

Or rather the 'Darker than any Mystery',

The Doorway whence issued all Secret Essences.

———

[01c18t] Richard John Lynn

The Dao that can be described in language is not the constant Dao;

the name that can be given it is not its constant name.

Nameless, it is the origin of the myriad things;

named, it is the mother of the myriad things.

Therefore, always be without desire so as to see their subtlety.

And always have desire so as to see their ends.

These two emerge together but have different names.

Together, we refer to them as mystery: the mystery upon mystery and gateway of all subtleties.

———

[01c19t] Lin Yutang

ON THE ABSOLUTE TAO

The Tao that can be told of

Is not the Absolute Tao;

The Names that can be given

Are not Absolute Names.

The Nameless is the origin of Heaven and Earth;

The Named is the Mother of All Things.

Therefore:

Oftentimes, one strips oneself of passion

In order to see the Secret of Life;

Oftentimes, one regards life with passion

In order to see its manifest forms.

These two (the Secret and its manifestations)

Are (in their nature) the same;

They are given different names

When they become manifest.

They may both be called the Cosmic Mystery:

Reaching from the Mystery into the Deeper Mystery

Is the Gate to the Secret of All Life.

———

[01c20t] Victor H. Mair

The ways that can be walked are not the eternal Way;

The names that can be named are not the eternal name.

The nameless is the origin of the myriad creatures;

The named is the mother of the myriad creatures.

Therefore,

Always be without desire in order to observe its wondrous subtleties;

Always have desire so that you may observe its manifestations.

Both of these derive from the same source;

They have different names but the same designation.

Mystery of mysteries,

The gate of all wonders!

———

[01c21t] Tolbert McCarroll

The Tao that can be spoken of is not the eternal Tao.

The name that can be named is not the eternal name.

The nameless is the beginning of heaven and earth.

The named is the mother of the ten thousand things.

Send your desires away and you will see the mystery.

Be filled with desire and you will see only the manifestation.

As these two come forth they differ in name.

Yet at their source they are the same.

This source is called a mystery.

Darkness within darkness,

the gateway to all mystery.

———

[01c22t] David H. Li

Direction, as expressed, is no ordinary direction;

as named, no ordinary name.

Null identifies the universe at the beginning.

Ull identifies the mother of myriad matters.

Thus, visit Null to observe its intricateness.

Visit Ull to observe its limitlessness.

These two spring from the same source;

only their identifications differ.

Both are profound.

Profound upon profound, it is the portal to all intricacies.

———

[01c23t] Yasuhiko Genku Kimura

The Tao Eternal is beyond definition.

No name given can capture its eternality.

Nameless, it is the origin of the Kosmos.

Named, it is the beginning of all things.

Nothingness, it is the inner being of the Kosmos.

Thingness, it is the outer distinctions of the Kosmos.

These two, though different in names, arise from the same source:

The source called the Invisible.

Invisible beyond the invisible,

It is the entry into the myriad wonders of the Eternal Kosmos.

———

[01c24t] Chou-Wing Chohan

The Tao that can be expressed in words is not the eternal Tao.

The name that can be defined in words is not the name that never changes.

Non-existence is what we will call the source of heaven and earth.

Existence is the mother of all things.

From eternal non-existence, therefore, we observe the beginning of the existence of the many hidden qualities of the universe.

From eternal existence, therefore, we clearly observe the overt qualities of the universe.

These two, the hidden and the overt, are originally the same at source, and become different when they manifest themselves.

This same origin is "the smallest of the small."

The absolute "smallest of the small" is the gate from which the beginning of all the parts of the universe emerges.

———

[01c25t] Man-Ho Kwok

The Tao that can be talked about is not the true Tao.

The name that can be named is not the eternal Name.

Everything in the universe comes out of Nothing.

Nothing - the nameless is the beginning;

While Heaven, the mother is the creatrix of all things.

Follow the nothingness of the Tao,

and you can be like it, not needing anything,

seeing the wonder and the root of everything.

And even if you cannot grasp this nothingness,

you can still see something of the Tao in everything.

These two are the same only called by different names

- and both are mysterious and wonderful.

All mysteries are Tao, and Heaven is their mother:

She is the gateway and the womb-door.

———

[01c26t] Gu Zhengkun

The Tao that is utterable

Is not the eternal Tao;

The name that is namable

Is not the eternal Name.

The Nothingness is the name of the beginning of heaven and earth;

The Being (substance) is the name of the mother of all things.

Hence one should gain an insight into the beginning of the Tao by constantly observing the Nothingness,

And should perceive the end of the Tao by constantly observing the Being.

These two things, the Nothingness and the Being, are of the same origin but different in name.

They are both so profound as to be a key to the door of myriad secrets.

———

[01c27t] Chao-Hsiu Chen

The Tao that can be named is not the eternal Tao.

The Name that can be spoken is not the eternal name.

The Nameless is the beginning of Heaven and Earth.

The Named is the mother of all creatures.

Observe the mysteries of the Tao without longing.

Survey its appearance with desire.

Both mysteries and appearance come from the same origin but wear a different name;

they are enigmatic.

The greatest mystery is the gate to all mysteries.

———

[01c28t] Liu Qixuan

There are ways to follow,

But what is followed is not the true Way.

There are names to give,

But what is given is not the true Name.

Let us call non-being the beginning of the universe

And let us call being the development of all things.

When we follow non-being

We approach the wonder of the Way.

When we follow being

We approach the farther-end manifestation of the Way.

Each has the same origin,

And here exists a metaphysical door to true wisdom.

———

[01c29t] Shi Fu Hwang

Understanding The Tao

Lao Tze says,

The Tao is that on which one can always tread.

That on which one cannot always tread is not the Tao.

And fame is that of which one can always remember.

That of which one cannot always remember is not fame.

All things are without names prior to the formation of Heaven and Earth.

And names are brought out to classify various things.

Since there is no name in the very beginning, why should one care about fame!

Hence, those who are constantly free of desire of fame shall see the Tao's subtle secret.

Those who bear desire shall see the end lying in front of them.

Both two types of men ferment their thinking in the same place, yet they will experience different fates.

Both their fates shall be up to Heaven.

Beyond our heaven, there are other heavens: whoever knows this shall find the gate of the Tao.

———

[01c30t] Ch’u Ta-Kao

The Tao that can be expressed is not the eternal Tao;

The name that can be defined is not the unchanging name.

Non-existence is called the antecedent of heaven and earth;

Existence is the mother of all things.

From eternal non-existence, therefore, we serenely observe the mysterious beginning of the Universe;

From eternal existence we clearly see the apparent distinctions.

These two are the same in source and become different when manifested.

This sameness is called profundity.

Infinite profundity is the gate whence comes the beginning of all parts of the Universe.

———

[01c31t] Paul J. Lin

The Tao that can be spoken of is not the eternal Tao;

The Name that can be named is not the eternal Name.

The Nameless [non-being] is the origin of heaven and earth;

The Namable [being] is the mother of all things.

Therefore constantly without desire,

There is the recognition of subtlety;

But constantly with desire,

Only the realization of potentiality.

The two come from the same source,

Having different names.

Both are called mysteries,

More mystical than the most mystical,

The gate of all subtleties.

———

[01c32t] Michael LaFargue

The Tao that can be told is not the invariant Tao,

the names that can be named are not the invariant Names.

Nameless, it is the source of the thousands of things

(named, it is 'Mother' of the thousands of things).

Yes:

Always:

being desireless,

one sees the hidden essentials.

Always:

having desires,

one sees only what is sought.

These two lines are about The Merging -

it is when things develop and emerge from this that the different names appear.

The Merging is something mysterious -

mysterious, and more mysterious,

the abode of all the hidden essences.

———

[01c33t] Cheng Lin

The truth that may be told is not the everlasting Truth.

The name given to a thing is not the everlasting Name.

Nothingness is used to denote the state that existed before the birth of heaven and earth.

Reality is used to denote the state where the multitude of things begins to have a separate existence.

Therefore,

when the mind rests in the state of Nothingness, the enigma can be understood;

when the mind rests in the state of Reality, the bounds can be reached.

These two states, though bearing different names, have a common origin.

Both are mysterious and metaphysical.

They are the most mysterious, and form the gateway to all mysteries.

———

[01c34t] Yi Wu

The way that can be talked about is not the constant Way.

The name that can be named is not the constant Name.

Non-being is the name of the origin of Heaven and Earth;

Being is the name of the mother of all things.

Therefore:

Constantly in Non-being, one wishes to contemplate its (the Way's) subtlety.

Constantly in Being, one wishes to contemplate its path.

These two come from the same source, but are different in name.

The same source is called Mystery.

Mystery and more mystery.

It is the gateway to myriad subtleties.

———

[01c35t] Han Hiong Tan

Dao that can be expressed in words is not the absolute Dao.

The names that can be given are not the absolute names.

Non-being is before the dawn of time,

Being is when everything begins to emerge.

Therefore, maintaining a passive and receptive mode,

You can watch the secret of life;

Maintaining an active and attentive mode,

You can perceive the rhythm of life.

These two cognitive processes, though differing in names,

Are in the same continuum.

Both are known as the inscrutable Mystery,

Which is the greatest of all mysteries.

And it is through these perspectives that we can observe the marvellous phenomena of Nature.

———

[01c36t] Hua-Ching Ni

Tao, the subtle reality of the universe cannot be described.

That which can be described in words is merely a conception of the mind.

Although names and descriptions have been applied to it, the subtle reality is beyond the description.

One may use the word "Nothingness" to describe the Origin of the universe, and "Beingness" to describe the Mother of the myriad things,

but Nothingness and Beingness are merely conceptions.

From the perspective of Nothingness,

one may perceive the expansion of the universe.

From the perspective of Beingness,

one may distinguish individual things.

Both are for the conceptual convenience of the mind.

Although different concepts can be applied,

Nothingness and Beingness and other conceptual activity of the mind all come from the same indescribable subtle Originalness.

The Way is the unfoldment of such subtle reality.

Having reached the subtlety of the universe,

one may see the ultimate subtlety,

the Gate of All Wonders.

———

[01c37t] Chang Chung-yuan

The Tao that can be spoken of is not the Tao itself.

The name that can be given is not the name itself.

The unnameable is the source of the universe.

The nameable is the originator of all things.

Therefore, oftentimes without intention I see the wonder of Tao.

Oftentimes with intention I see its manifestations.

Its wonder and its manifestations are one and the same.

Since their emergence, they have been called by different names.

Their identity is called the mystery.

From mystery to further mystery:

The entry of all wonders!

———

[01c38t] Henry Wei

Realization of Tao

T'i Tao

The Tao that can be stated is not the Eternal Tao.

The name that can be named is not the Eternal Name.

The Unnameable is originator of Heaven and Earth.

The Nameable is mother of the ten thousand things.

Therefore,

Always be desireless, so as to discern Tao's wonderful essence;

Always have some desire, so as to discern its manifestations.

These two come out from the same source,

But are different in name.

Their identical nature is a mystery.

Mystery of mysteries -

That is the gate of all wonderful essence.

———

[01c39t] Ha Poong Kim

No Tao that may be Tao is the constant Tao;

No name that may be a name is the constant name.

By non-being you name the beginning of Heaven and Earth;

By being you name the mother of the ten thousand things.

Therefore, always free of desire you see the secret;

Always with desire you see its appearance.

These two

Are the same in origin yet different in name.

Their sameness may be called a mystery.

It is the mystery beyond mysteries,

The gate to myriad secrets.

———

[01c40t] Tao Huang

The Tao that is voiced is no longer that of eternal Tao.

The name that has been written is no longer that of eternal name.

The nameless is the beginning of the cosmic universe.

The named is the mother of the myriad creatures.

Being at peace, one can see into the subtle.

Engaging with passion, one can see into the manifest.

They both arise from a common source but have different names.

Both are called the mystery within the mystery.

They are the door to all wonders.

———

[01c41t] Tang Zi-chang

Dao that can be talked about is not the eternal Dao itself;

A name that can be given is not the eternal thing itself.

The nameless existed

Before the birth of birth of Heaven and Earth - Universe;

The names which were given were after

The birth of All Things.

By the eternity of unknown existence

Comprehend the common essence of things;

By the eternity of Existence

Observe the apparent differences.

These two came from the same origin - the unknown,

But with different names.

They all are called the "profoundness",

Profoundly and profoundly it is the entrance

From which come all wonders.

———

[01c42t] Wing-tsit Chan

The Tao that can be told of is not the eternal Tao;

The name that can be named is not the eternal name.

The Nameless is the origin of Heaven and Earth;

The Named is the mother of all things.

Therefore let there always be non-being, so we may see their subtlety,

And let there always be being, so we may see their outcome.

The two are the same,

But after they are produced, they have different names.

They both may be called deep and profound.

Deeper and more profound,

The door of all subtleties!

———

[01c91t] И. И. Семененко

Если Дао могут высказать, Дао не является незыблемым;

если могут назвать имя, имя не является незыблемым.

Безымянность - вот начало Неба и Земли,

в наличии же имени таится мать десяти тысяч вещей.

Незыблемое неналичие - желаю поглядеть на скрытые в нем чудеса;

наличие в незыблемости - желаю осмотреть его окраину.

Выходит эта пара вместе, но именами различается.

Даю одно им имя сокровенного.

За сокровенным - сокровенное, врата множества чудес.

———

[01c92t] А. А. Маслов

Дао, которое может быть выражено словами, не есть постоянное Дао.

Имя, которое может быть поименовано, не есть постоянное имя.

Небытие зовётся началом Неба и Земли.

Бытие зовётся Матерью мириад созданий.

Поэтому, желая узреть его утончённо-неуловимую сущность, обрети постоянство небытия.

Желая наблюдать его проявления, пребывай в постоянстве бытия.

Оба они произрастают вместе и различаются лишь именем.

Будучи тождественными, они зовутся сокровенным.

Сокровенное и ещё раз сокровенное - врата ко множеству потаённого.

———

[01c93t] Е. А. Торчинов

Путь, что может быть пройден, не есть постоянный Путь-Дао.

Имя, что может быть поименовано, не есть постоянное имя.

Безымянное - Неба, Земли начало.

Именуемое - Матерью сущего стало.

В отсутствии тайну вещей созерцать стремись.

В наличии предел бытия созерцать стремись.

Те двое родятся вместе, но их имена различны.

Их вместе назову я Сокровенным.

И Сокровенное вновь Сокровенным стало.

Таковы врата всех тайн.

———

[01c94t] А. Е. Лукьянов

Дао, которое может быть высказано, не есть постоянное Дао.

Имя, которое может быть названо, не есть постоянное имя.

Небытием именуется начало Неба и Земли,

Бытием именуется Мать мириад вещей.

Поэтому:

обращаясь к постоянному небытию, стремлюсь к тому, чтобы увидеть его тайну;

обращаясь к постоянному бытию, стремлюсь к тому, чтобы увидеть его предел (спиральный путь).

Оба они (небытие и бытие) из тождества происходят, но различно именуются.

В тождестве они называются первоначалом.

Первоначало и еще первоначало - вот дверь ко всем тайнам.

———

[01c95t] Ян Хин-шун

Дао, которое может быть выражено словами, не есть постоянное дао.

Имя, которое может быть названо, не есть постоянное имя.

Безымянное есть начало неба и земли,

обладающее именем - мать всех вещей.

Поэтому тот, кто свободен от страстей, видит чудесную тайну [дао],

а кто имеет страсти, видит его только в конечной форме.

Оба они одного и того же происхождения, но с разными названиями.

Вместе они называются глубочайшими.

[Переход] от одного глубочайшего к другому -

дверь ко всему чудесному.

———

[01c96t] Д. П. Конисси

Тао, которое должно быть действительным, не есть обыкновенное Тао.

Имя, которое должно быть действительным, не есть обыкновенное имя.

То, что не имеет имени, - есть начало неба и земли;

то, что имеет имя, - есть мать всех вещей.

Вот почему свободный от всех страстей видит величественное проявление Тао,

а находящийся под влиянием какой-нибудь страсти видит только незначительное его проявление.

Эти оба происходят из одного и того же начала, но только носят разное название.

Они называются непостижимыми.

Непостижимое из непостижимых и есть ворота всего таинственного.

———

[01c97t] В. В. Малявин

Путь, о котором можно поведать, - не постоянный Путь.

Имя, которое можно назвать, - не постоянное Имя.

Где имени нет - там начало всех вещей,

Где имя есть - там мать всех вещей.

Посему, постоянно не имея желания, видишь его исток,

А постоянно имея желание, видишь его исход.

То и другое является совместно,

Они имеют разные имена, но одинаково сказываются.

В сокровенном есть еще сокровенность:

Вот откуда исходит все утонченное.

———

[01c98t] Б. Б. Виногродский

Постоянный Путь составляется из возможности выбора Пути и невозможности выбора Пути.

Постоянное имя составляется из возможности выбора имени и невозможности выбора имени.

Отсутствием именуется начальное действие Неба-Земли.

Наличием именуется рождение-материнство мириад сущностей.

Причинность:

Стремление к постоянному отсутствию осуществляет созерцание тончайшей тайны.

Стремление к постоянному наличию осуществляет созерцание его внешнего проявления.

Эта пара представляет собой общность исхода при различии наименования.

Если определить вместе, то это будет непостижимая тайна.

Пытаясь проникнуть в эту тайну, придешь только к тайне.

Это врата для появления множества тончайших начал.


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PSEUDO-CHAPTER Two

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———

[02c01t] Robert G. Henricks

When everyone in the world knows the beautiful as beautiful, ugliness comes into being;

When everyone knows the good, then the not good comes to be.

The mutual production of being and nonbeing,

The mutual completion of difficult and easy,

The mutual formation of long and short,

The mutual filling of high and low,

The mutual harmony of tone and voice,

The mutual following of front and back -

These are all constants.

Therefore the Sage dwells in nonactive affairs and practices the wordless teaching.

The ten thousand things arise, but he doesn't begin them;

He acts on their behalf, but he doesn't make them dependent;

He accomplishes his tasks, but he doesn't dwell on them;

It is only because he doesn't dwell on them, that they therefore do not leave him.

———

[02c02t] John C. H. Wu

WHEN all the world recognizes beauty as beauty, this in itself is ugliness.

When all the world recognizes good as good, this in itself is evil.

Indeed, the hidden and the manifest give birth to each other.

Difficult and easy complement each other.

Long and short exhibit each other.

High and low set measure to each other.

Voice and sound harmonize each other.

Back and front follow each other.

Therefore, the Sage manages his affairs without ado,

And spreads his teaching without talking.

He denies nothing to the teeming things.

He rears them, but lays no claim to them.

He does his work, but sets no store by it.

He accomplishes his task, but does not dwell upon it.

And yet it is just because he does not dwell on it

That nobody can ever take it away from him.

———

[02c03t] D. C. Lau

The whole world recognizes the beautiful as the beautiful, yet this is only the ugly;

the whole world recognizes the good as the good, yet this is only the bad.

Thus Something and Nothing produce each other;

The difficult and the easy complement each other;

The long and the short offset each other;

The high and the low incline towards each other;

Note and sound harmonize with each other;

Before and after follow each other.

Therefore the sage keeps to the deed that consists in taking no action and practises the teaching that uses no words.

The myriad creatures rise from it yet it claims no authority;

It gives them life yet claims no possession;

It benefits them yet exacts no gratitude;

It accomplishes its task yet lays claim to no merit.

It is because it lays claim to no merit

That its merit never deserts it.

———

[02c04t] R. L. Wing

When all the world knows beauty as beauty, There is ugliness.

When they know good as good, There there is evil.

In this way

Existence and nonexistence produce each other.

Difficult and easy complete each other.

Long and short contrast each other.

High and low attract each other.

Pitch and tone harmonize each other.

Future and past follow each other.

Therefore, Evolved Individuals

Hold their position without effort,

Practice their philosophy without words,

Are a part of All Things and overlook nothing.

They produce but do not possess, Act without expectation, Succeed without taking credit.

Since, indeed, they take no credit, it remains with them.

———

[02c05t] Ren Jiyu

When all people in the world know the beautiful as beauty,

There appears ugliness;

When they know goodness as good,

There appears evil.

Therefore, by opposing each other,

Existence and nonexistence come into being,

Difficult and easy form themselves,

Long and short are distinct,

High and low contrast,

Sound and voice harmonize,

Front and back emerge.

Thus, the sage manages affairs by "nonaction,"

And teaches by "saying nothing."

He leaves all things to grow and change without initiation;

Raises all things without making claim for his ownership;

Promotes all things without attributing them to his contribution;

And takes no credit for himself when the work is done.

It is because no claim is made that his credit cannot be forfeited.

———

[02c06t] Gia-fu Feng

Under heaven all can see beauty as beauty only because there is ugliness.

All can know good as good only because there is evil.

Therefore having and not having arise together.

Difficult and easy complement each other.

Long and short contrast each other;

High and low rest upon each other;

Voice and sound harmonize each other;

Front and back follow one another.

Therefore the sage goes about doing nothing, teaching no-talking.

The ten thousand things rise and fall without cease,

Creating, yet not possessing,

Working, yet not taking credit.

Work is done, then forgotten.

Therefore it lasts forever.

———

[02c07t] Lok Sang Ho

People under heaven see beauty in what they call "beauty,"

that way they know of the "ugly."

Similarly people see good in what they call "good,"

that way they know of the "bad."

Existence and Emptiness are concepts that make sense by comparison.

Similarly, long lends meaning to short, and high to low.

Harmony is produced when sounds combine in unison.

Because the fore goes, so the back follows.

Thus the Sage would not act as if he could act on his will.

He teaches the unspoken teaching.

No word is ever spoken, yet living things thrive.

No ownership is claimed, though Nature begets all creation.

Humility is maintained even as achievement is made.

No credit is claimed even as work is done.

Because no credit is claimed, so no credit is ever lost.

———

[02c08t] Xiaolin Yang

Everyone knows that beauty is good, but ugliness exists as well.

Everyone knows that kindness is good, but unkindness exists as well.

Therefore, nothingness and existence always coexist;

As do difficulty and easiness, long and short, high and low, and sound and hearing.

For this reason, the great men practiced WUWEI.

They wordlessly taught people and let the world develop by itself.

Create but do not control, nurture but do not own, accomplish but do not claim.

Only when you do not claim the accomplishment, will it never leave.

———

[02c09t] Walter Gorn Old, SELF-PERFECTION

When the world speaks of beauty as being beautiful, ugliness is at once defined.

When goodness is seen to be good, evil is at once apparent.

So do existence and non-existence mutually give rise to one another, as that which is difficult and that which is easy, distant and near, high and low, shrill and bass, preceding and following.

The Sage therefore is occupied only with that which is without prejudice.

He teaches without verbosity, he acts without effort; he produces without possessing, he acts without regard to the fruit of action; he brings his work to perfection without assuming credit; and claiming nothing as his own, he cannot at any time be said to lose.

———

[02c10t] James Legge

All in the world know the beauty of the beautiful,

and in doing this they have (the idea of) what ugliness is;

they all know the skill of the skilful,

and in doing this they have (the idea of) what the want of skill is.

So it is that existence and non-existence give birth the one to (the idea of) the other;

that difficulty and ease produce the one (the idea of) the other;

that length and shortness fashion out the one the figure of the other;

that (the ideas of) height and lowness arise from the contrast of the one with the other;

that the musical notes and tones become harmonious through the relation of one with another;

and that being before and behind give the idea of one following another.

Therefore the sage manages affairs without doing anything,

and conveys his instructions without the use of speech.

All things spring up, and there is not one which declines to show itself;

they grow, and there is no claim made for their ownership;

they go through their processes, and there is no expectation (of a reward for the results).

The work is accomplished, and there is no resting in it (as an achievement).

The work is done, but how no one can see;

'Tis this that makes the power not cease to be.

———

[02c11t] David Hinton

All beneath heaven knows beauty is beauty only because there's ugliness, and knows good is good only because there's evil.

Being and nonbeing give birth to one another,

difficult and easy complete one another,

long and short measure one another,

high and low fill one another,

music and noise harmonize one another,

before and after follow one another:

that's why a sage abides in the realm of nothing's own doing,

living out that wordless teaching.

The ten thousand things arise without beginnings there,

abide without waiting there,

come to perfection without dwelling there.

Without dwelling there: that's the one way you'll never lose it.

———

[02c12t] Chichung Huang

When all under heaven know beauty as beauty,

There is ugliness;

When all know goodness,

There is evil.

That being and nonbeing mutually generate,

Difficult and easy mutually complement,

Long and short mutually formulate,

High and low mutually fulfill,

Music and voice mutually harmonize,

Front and back mutually follow

Is constant.

Hence, the sage man

Assumed the office of nonaction,

Conducted speechless instruction.

When the ten thousand things rose,

He did not initiate.

He assisted without taking credit;

Scored merits without claiming.

Precisely because he claimed not,

They never vanished.

———

[02c13t] Ellen M. Chen

When all under heaven know beauty (mei) as beauty,

There is then ugliness (o);

When all know the good (shan) good,

There is then the not good (pu shan).

Therefore being and non-being give rise to each other,

The difficult and easy complement each other,

The long and short shape each other,

The high and low lean on each other,

Voices and instruments harmonize with one another,

The front and rear follow upon each other.

Therefore the sage manages affairs without action,

Carries out (hsing) teaching without speech (yen).

Ten thousand things arise and he does not initiate them,

They come to be and he claims no possession (yu) of them,

He works (wei) without holding on,

Accomplishes (ch'eng) without claiming merit.

Because he does not claim merit,

His merit does not go away.

———

[02c14t] Lee Sun Chen Org

In our world:

When there was a consensus on what should be judged as beautiful, a convention on what should be disliked [as ugly] was reciprocally brought in [inadvertently].

When there was an agreement on what should be deemed good, an agreement on what was evil (not good) was correspondingly decided upon.

Accordingly, [the following contrasting concepts were formulated because of their relative relations]:

Existence (being) and non-existence (nothing) are inter-dependent [concepts];

Difficulty and easiness are determined by comparison;

Long and short are conjointly formulated;

High and low owe their existences to their relative positions [to the observer];

Tune and sound are distinguished by [the rule whether a stream of sounds has internal harmonization];

Front and back are joined together by perspective positions [of objects to the observer].

Accordingly, a Sage (leader) [adopts the following measure to lead]:

When comes to managing the government, he would practice the policy of non-interference;

When comes to educating the population, he would avoid making speeches (through using tantalizing rhetoric);

Even after having had activated and motivated all and every things and creatures to embark their potentialities on the best possible course, he will never withdraw from his continuous and painstaking support.

[A Sage] would help [all creatures] to relish their lives without being possessive;

[He] would carry out good deeds without asserting his authority;

[He] would not claim his merit after each success;

It is just because of his avoiding appropriating his contributions, nothing whatsoever can take away from him his achievements [of Te].

———

[02c15t] Tien Cong Tran

When the entire world recognizes beauty as beauty, there is ugliness.

When the entire world recognizes good as good, there is evil.

Indeed, "nothing" and "being" give birth to each other.

Difficult and easy complement each other.

Long and short exhibit each other.

High and low set measure to each other.

Voice and sound harmonize each other.

Back and front follow each other.

Therefore, the sage manages his affairs by "non-doing", and spreads his teaching by "non-talking".

The Way makes all things and denies nothing; it gives birth to them, but lays no claim to them; it does its work, but does not say by its work; it accomplishes his work, but does not dwell on things.

And yet it is just because he does not dwell on things that nobody can ever take them away from it.

———

[02c16t] Thomas Z. Zhang

People know what beauty is, because there is ugliness;

people know what good is, because there is bad.

Likewise, empty and full, difficulty and ease, long and short, high and low, sound and tone, front and rear, all go side by side.

Thus,

the sage handles affairs without the intention for fame, and teaches without preaching,

lets things develop without initialize them,

lets things grow without interfering them,

lets things move ahead without forcing them,

lets things succeed without boast about them.

Because the sage does not brag his success, he would continue to be successful.

———

[02c17t] Arthur Waley

It is because every one under Heaven recognizes beauty as beauty, that the idea of ugliness exists.

And equally if every one recognized virtue as virtue, this would merely create fresh conceptions of wickedness.

For truly 'Being and Not-being grow out of one another;

Difficult and easy complete one another.

Long and short test one another;

High and low determine one another.

Pitch and mode give harmony to one another.

Front and back give sequence to one another'.

Therefore the Sage relies on actionless activity,

Carries on wordless teaching,

But the myriad creatures are worked upon by him; he does not disown them.

He rears them, but does not lay claim to them,

Controls them, but does not lean upon them,

Achieves his aim, but does not call attention to what he does;

And for the very reason that he does not call attention to what he does

He is not ejected from fruition of what he has done.

———

[02c18t] Richard John Lynn

Once all under Heaven knew beauty as "beauty"; at that moment "ugliness" was already there.

Once all knew goodness as "goodness"; at that moment "not good" was already there.

Thus it is that presence and absence generate each other;

difficulty and ease determine the sense of the other;

long and short give proportion to the other;

highs and lows are a matter of relative inclination;

instrumental sounds and voice tones depend on one other for harmony;

and before and after result from their relative places in a sequence.

Therefore, the sage [sheng] tends to matters without conscious effort

And practices the teaching that is not expressed in words.

The myriad folk model their behavior on him, yet he does not tell them to do so.

He gives them life, yet he possesses them not.

He acts, yet they do not depend on him.

And he achieves success yet takes no pride in it.

It is just because he is not proprietary that he does not lose it.

———

[02c19t] Lin Yutang

THE RISE OF RELATIVE OPPOSITES

When the people of the Earth all know beauty as beauty,

There arises (the recognition of) ugliness.

When the people of the Earth all know the good as good,

There arises (the recognition of) evil.

Therefore:

Being and non-being interdepend in growth;

Difficult and easy interdepend in completion;

Long and short interdepend in contrast;

High and low interdepend in position;

Tones and voice interdepend in harmony;

Front and behind interdepend in company.

Therefore the Sage:

Manages affairs without action;

Preaches the doctrine without words;

All things take their rise, but he does not turn away from them;

He gives them life, but does not take possession of them;

He acts, but does not appropriate;

Accomplishes, but claims no credit.

It is because he lays claim to no credit

That the credit cannot be taken away from him.

———

[02c20t] Victor H. Mair

When all under heaven know beauty as beauty, already there is ugliness;

When everyone knows goodness, this accounts for badness.

Being and nonbeing give birth to each other,

Difficult and easy complete each other,

Long and short form each other,

High and low fulfill each other,

Tone and voice harmonize with each other,

Front and back follow each other - it is ever thus.

For these reasons,

The sage dwells in affairs of nonaction, carries out a doctrine without words.

He lets the myriad creatures rise up but does not instigate them;

He acts but does not presume;

He completes his work but does not dwell on it.

Now,

Simply because he does not dwell on them, his accomplishments never leave him.

———

[02c21t] Tolbert McCarroll

All under heaven see beauty as beauty only because they also see ugliness.

All announce that good is good only because they also denounce what is bad.

Therefore,

something and nothing give birth to one another.

Difficult and easy complete one another.

Long and short fashion one another.

High and low arise from one another.

Notes and tones harmonize with one another.

Front and back follow one another.

Thus,

the True Person acts without striving and teaches without words.

Deny nothing to the ten thousand things.

Nourish them without claiming authority,

Benefit them without demanding gratitude,

Do the work, then move on.

And, the fruits of your labor will last forever.

———

[02c22t] David H. Li

For [people in] the world to know [only] beauty and what is beautiful is ugly;

to know [only] goodness and what is good is not good.

Ull and Null complement in generation,

difficult and easy complement in completion;

long and short complement in form,

high and low complement in norm;

voice and sound complement in harmony,

front and rear complement in company;

- they are ever so.

Thus,

a sage practices laissez-faire governance and provides wordless instructions.

[A sage] neither interferes with myriad matters' generation,

nor takes possession of [their] cultivation,

nor expects approbation of [his/her] provision,

nor seeks acclamation for [their] accomplishments.

It is because [the sage] does not seek acclamation for [his/her] accomplishments that they do not disappear.

———

[02c23t] Yasuhiko Genku Kimura

When the world recognizes beauty as beauty, ugliness arises.

When the world recognizes good as good, evil arises.

Being and non-being create each other.

Difficult and easy define each other.

Long and short form each other.

High and low support each other.

Tone and voice accompany each other.

Before and after follow each other.

Hence,

the sage lives in the state of non-action - of eternal balance,

And teaches by the precept of silence - and through his silent deed.

He accepts things as they arise,

Creates without possessing,

Performs without depending,

Accomplishes without claiming credit.

Because he does not claim credit for himself,

His virtues endure forever more.

———

[02c24t] Chou-Wing Chohan

When the world understands that beauty is beautiful, ugliness will exist.

When the world understands that goodness is good, evil will exist.

From that we learn that:

Existence affirms non-existence,

Ease affirms difficulty,

Short derives from long, because that is what it is compared to,

Low derives from high, because according to that it is measured,

Echo affirms sound,

After follows before.

Accordingly,

The sage operates without action,

And teaches his pupils without words.

Everything in the universe, when defined, is relative to everything else.

The sage does not try to differentiate things, he does not try to show his preference for things either in deed or in speech.

This does not mean that the sage does nothing or says nothing;

rather, it means that he "accepts things as they are," easily and naturally, without making any demands.

———

[02c25t] Man-Ho Kwok

Beauty and mercy are only recognized by people

Because they know the opposite, which is ugly and mean.

If the people think they know goodness

Then all they really know is what evil is like!

Nothing, and Heaven share the same root -

Difficulty and ease are a part of all work.

The long and the short are in your hands,

Above and below exist because they each do,

What you want and what you say should be the same ...

Neither future nor past can exist alone.

The sage has no attachment to anything,

and he therefore does what is right without speaking by simply being in the Tao.

Life, all life began without words.

Life is made - and no one owns it.

The Tao is neither selfish nor proud.

The Tao is generous and graceful in what it does

Without ever claiming any merit

And the sage's greatness lies in taking no credit.

———

[02c26t] Gu Zhengkun

The whole world knows the beautiful as beautiful

Only because of the existence of the ugly;

The whole world knows the good as good

Only because of the existence of the bad.

Hence the Being and the Nothingness exist in opposition;

The difficult and the easy complement each other;

The long and the short manifest themselves by comparison;

The high and the low are inclined as well as opposed to each other;

The consonants and vowels harmonize with each other;

The front and the back follow each other.

Thus the sage behaves

Without taking active action,

Teaches without using words,

Lets all things rip without interference,

Gives them life without claiming to be their owner,

Benefits them without claiming to be their benefactor, succeeds without claiming credit.

Because he does not claim credit,

His credit is never lost.

———

[02c27t] Chao-Hsiu Chen

The whole world can see the beautiful as the beautiful only because of the ugly.

The whole world can recognize the good as the good only because of the bad.

Something and nothing create each other.

The difficult and the easy complement each other.

The long and the short define each other.

The high and the low counterbalance each other.

Before and after follow each other.

Therefore the sage acts without action, teaches without words.

The myriad creatures keep on going without an end,

creating life without possessing it,

performing deeds without expectations,

fulfilling the mission without claiming a victory,

because the sage does not ask for praise,

therefore the praise remains with him for ever.

———

[02c28t] Liu Qixuan

We know beauty because there is ugliness.

We know goodness because there are evils.

Therefore, being and non-being are relative to each other

As are what is difficult and what is easy;

What is long and what is short;

What is high and what is low;

What sounds and what resonates;

And what precedes and what follows.

The wise do good by doing nothing

And teach well by teaching nothing.

Things work without intruding on the natural process,

Develop and produce without desiring willfully,

And are successful without feeling success.

Only those who possess nothing

Will lose nothing.

———

[02c29t] Shi Fu Hwang

The Rise Of Relative Opposites

Lao Tze says,

When the people in the world gain a knowledge of that which is beautiful,

they will also gain a knowledge of that which is ugly.

When they gain a knowledge of that which belongs to the realm of the good,

they will also gain a knowledge of that which belongs to the realm of the bad.

Existence and non-existence shall rotate to take place;

difficulty and ease impress people by the prepossession;

length long and short are acknowledged in comparison;

tallness and lowness confront to make contrast;

harmonious musical pieces, the notes and tones interdepend;

that which is before or behind leads or follows the other.

Therefore, there is a sage who likes to do business without the intent to control fate and conveys his instruction without speech.

All things make an effort to prosper, and there is no one who comes to interfere with them.

Moreover, the one who gives life to all things does not claim ownership of them;

works laboriously for them, and does not expect a reward in return;

establishes the feat for them, and does not confess the achievement.

Because it does not confess the achievement, no one can forget the achievement.

———

[02c30t] Ch’u Ta-Kao

When all in the world understand beauty to be beautiful, then ugliness exists.

When all understand goodness to be good, then evil exists.

Thus existence suggests non-existence;

Easy gives rise to difficult;

Short is derived from long by comparison;

Low is distinguished from high by position;

Resonance harmonizes sound;

After follows before.

Therefore, the Sage carries on his business without action, and gives his teaching without words.

———

[02c31t] Paul J. Lin

When all in the world recognize beauty as beauty, it is ugliness.

When they recognize good as good, it is not good.

Therefore,

being and non-being beget each other,

hard and easy complement each other,

long and short shape each other,

high and low rely on each other,

sound and voice harmonize with each other,

front and back follow each other.

Therefore, the Sage administers without action and instructs without words.

He lets all things rise without dominating them,

produces without attempting to possess,

acts without asserting,

achieves without taking credit.

And because he does not take credit, it will never leave him.

———

[02c32t] Michael LaFargue

When everyone in the world recognizes the elegant as elegant ...

then ugliness has just appeared.

When all recognize goodness as good ...

then the not-good has just appeared.

Yes:

'Being' and 'nothing' give birth one to the other;

'the difficult' and 'the easy' give full shape to one another;

'what excels' and 'what falls short' form one another;

'the noble' and 'the lowly' give content to one another;

the music and the voice harmonize with one another;

the back and the front follow one another.

Always.

And so the Wise Person:

Settles into his job of Not Doing,

carries on his teaching done without talking.

The thousands of things arise and are active -

and he rejects none of them.

He is a doer but does not rely on this,

he achieves successes but does not dwell in them.

He just does not dwell in them, and so they cannot be taken away.

———

[02c33t] Cheng Lin

As soon as the world regards some thing as beautiful, forthwith also appears ugliness.

As soon as the world regards some deed as good, forthwith also appears evil.

Thus we have the alternation of existence and non-existence;

the succession of the difficult and the easy;

the comparison of the long and the short;

the contrast between the high and the low;

the variation of pitch notes;

the order of precedence and sequence.

The Sage is ever free from artifice, and practises the precept of silence.

He dose things without the desire for control.

He lives without the thought of private ownership.

He gives without the wish for return.

He achieves without claiming credit for himself.

Because he does not claim credit for himself, he is always given credit.

———

[02c34t] Yi Wu

When all in the world know beauty as beauty,

then ugliness already has arisen.

When all know good as good,

then bad already has arisen.

Therefore:

existence and non-existence give birth to each other,

difficult and easy complement each other,

long and short contrast with each other,

high and low rely on each other,

sound and voice harmonize with each other,

front and back follow each other.

Therefore:

the sage manages his affairs by non-action and spreads his teachings without words.

All things arise, he does not reject them.

He produces, but does not possess;

acts, but does not take credit;

achieves merit, but does not dwell [on it].

Because he does not dwell on it, it does not leave him.

———

[02c35t] Han Hiong Tan

When everyone knows what beauty is,

There must also be ugliness.

When everybody knows what goodness is,

Then evil must also exist.

Therefore, the haves and the have-nots coexist.

Easy and hard become complementary.

Long and short differ in length.

High and low contrast in height.

Tone and pitch harmonise with each other.

The past is followed by the present.

Hence, the sage manages his affairs with non-action,

Teaches without utterance,

And lets everything develop without any interference.

Dao procreates but does not possess.

It facilitates development but does not gloat.

When it accomplishes his task, it does not claim credit.

As the sage does not claim credit for his success,

The credit cannot be taken away from him.

———

[02c36t] Hua-Ching Ni

As soon as the world regards something as beautiful,

ugliness simultaneously becomes apparent.

As soon as the world regards something as good,

evil simultaneously becomes apparent.

In exactly the same manner,

existence and nonexistence give birth to each other.

Difficult and easy define each other.

Long and short form each other.

High and low make each other distinguishable.

Silence and sound make each other conspicuous.

Front and back connect each other.

Realizing this, one does not separate one's being from the subtle essence of the universe.

One holds no preconceptions, and does things without insisting on personal conditions.

One guides people by living in accord with the essence of life.

One brings good things about, but has no intention of possessing them.

One performs work, but has no intention to acquire personal power.

When one's task is accomplished,

one lets go of it and seeks no reward or recognition.

Because one does not claim credit for oneself,

one does not do any damage to oneself.

———

[02c37t] Chang Chung-yuan

When beauty is universally affirmed as beauty, therein is ugliness.

When goodness is universally affirmed as goodness, therein is evil.

Therefore: being and non-being are mutually posited in their emergence.

Difficult and easy are mutually posited in their complementariness.

Long and short are mutually posited in their positions.

High and low are mutually posited in their contradiction.

Voice and tone are mutually posited in their unity.

Front and back are mutually posited in their succession.

Thus, the wise deals with things through non-interference and teaches through no-words.

All things flourish without interruption.

They grow by themselves, and no one possesses them.

Work is done, and no one depends on it.

Achievements are made, but no one claims credit.

Because no one claims credit, achievements are always there.

———

[02c38t] Henry Wei

Self-Culture

Yang Shen

When all the world knows beauty as beauty,

Then ugliness comes into being;

When all the world knows goodness as goodness,

Then evil comes into being.

Therefore,

Being and Non-Being condition each other;

Difficult and Easy give rise to each other;

Long and Short set off each other;

High and Low contrast each other;

Tone and Voice harmonize each other;

Front and Rear succeed each other.

Thus the Sage handles affairs non-assertively,

And imparts his teaching without words.

The ten thousand things grow apace,

But he does not let them down.

He produces but does not claim ownership;

He acts but does not presume on the result;

He achieves success but does not take the credit.

For the very reason that he takes no credit,

Credit does not separate from him.

———

[02c39t] Ha Poong Kim

All under Heaven recognize beautiful as beautiful,

But this is none other than ugly.

Everyone recognizes good as good,

But this is none other than bad.

Therefore being and non-being rise together;

Difficult and easy complete each other;

Long and short shape each other;

High and low lean on each other;

Sound and voice come in harmony;

Front and back accompany each other.

Therefore the sage

Relies on no-action,

Practices wordless teaching.

There rise the ten thousand things, but he disowns nothing,

He gives them life, yet does not possess them;

Rules them, yet does not depend on them;

His work is done, but he never dwells in it.

Truly, since he never dwells,

He never departs.

———

[02c40t] Tao Huang

In the world,

Everyone recognizes beauty as beauty,

Since the ugly is also there.

Everyone recognizes goodness as goodness,

Since evil is also there.

Since being and nonbeing give birth to each other,

Difficulty and ease complete each other,

Long and short measure each other,

High and low overflow into each other,

Voice and sound harmonize with each other,

And before and after follow each other,

Therefore the sage

Lives in actionless engagement,

And preaches wordless doctrine.

The myriad creatures

Act without beginning,

Nourish without possessing,

Accomplish without claiming credit.

It is accomplishment without claiming credit that makes the outcome self-sustaining.

———

[02c41t] Tang Zi-chang

When the whole world recognizes that beauty is beautiful,

It may be not beautiful at all.

When the whole world recognizes that goodness is good,

It may not be good at all.

Thus, existence and nonexistence produce each other.

The high and the low are compared with each other.

The long and the short show off each other.

The high and the low compliment each other.

The front and the rear follow each other.

Thus the Sage ruler administered state affairs by non-interference and carried out education by non-preaching.

All things are resolved in order and nothing is rejected.

It produces All Things but it does not possess them.

It provides everything for them but it does not take anything from them.

He accomplished deeds for them, but he did not claim the deeds.

Since he did not claim the deeds, they did not leave him.

———

[02c42t] Wing-tsit Chan

When the people of the world all know beauty as beauty,

There arises the recognition of ugliness.

When they all know the good as good,

There arises the recognition of evil.

Therefore:

Being and non-being produce each other;

Difficult and easy complete each other;

Long and short contrast each other;

High and low distinguish each other;

Sound and voice harmonize each other;

Front and behind accompany each other.

Therefore the sage manages affairs without action

And spreads doctrines without words.

All things arise, and he does not turn away from them.

He produces them but does not take possession of them.

He acts but does not rely on his own ability.

He accomplishes his task but does not claim credit for it.

It is precisely because he does not claim credit that his accomplishment remains with him.

———

[02c91t] И. И. Семененко

Когда все в Поднебесной знают, что прекрасное прекрасно, то вот и безобразное;

когда все знают, что добро является добром, то вот и зло.

Наличие и неналичие друг друга порождают,

трудное и легкое друг друга образуют,

короткое и длинное друг друга формируют,

высокое и низкое взаимно соотносятся,

тона звучат в гармонии,

переднее и заднее друг за другом следуют.

Вот почему Премудрый человек пребывает в деле недеяния,

проводит в жизнь учение, невыразимое в словах.

От десяти тысяч вещей, хотя они и возрастают, он не отказывается;

чему дает жизнь, не имеет, что делает, на то не опирается, свершая подвиги, к себе их не относит.

Лишь потому, что не относит, и остается с ними неразлучен.

———

[02c92t] А. А. Маслов

Лишь только в Поднебесной узнали, что красивое - красиво, тотчас появилось и уродство.

Как только все узнали, что добро - это добро, тотчас появилось и зло.

Ибо наличие и отсутствие порождают друг друга.

Сложное и простое создают друг друга.

Длинное и короткое поверяют друг друга.

Высокое и низкое тянутся друг к другу.

Голоса и звуки приходят в гармонию друг с другом.

"До" и "после" следуют друг за другом.

Поэтому мудрец действует недеянием и учит молчанием.

Мириады созданий возникают из этого, а он не правит ими.

Он порождает их и не обладает ими;

действует, не имея воздаяния;

достигая совершенства, не считает это успехом;

в силу того, что он никогда не стремится к успеху, тот никогда не покидает его.

———

[02c93t] Е. А. Торчинов

Когда в Поднебесной все узнают, что прекрасно прекрасное, - это уже безобразно.

Когда в Поднебесной все узнают, что добро есть добро, - это уже не добро.

Поэтому отсутствие и наличие друг друга порождают,

легкое и трудное друг друга определяют,

длинное и короткое друг друга измеряют,

высокое и низкое друг друга исчисляют,

мелодия и ритм друг с другом гармонируют,

начало и конец друг с другом чередуются.

Поэтому совершенный мудрец пребывает в делах недеяния, не прибегая к словам, он осуществляет учение.

Все сущее творит, не полагая начала творению, и действует, не замышляя ничего преднамеренно.

И Дао-Путь - рождает, но не обладает, действует, но не предумышляет, благими качествами и свойствами обладает, к ним не привязываясь никогда.

Поскольку в них он к ним не привязан, то их он и не теряет.

———

[02c94t] А. Е. Лукьянов

Когда в Поднебесной все узнают, что прекрасное есть прекрасное, то появляется и безобразное.

[Когда в Поднебесной] все узнают, что добро есть добро, то появляется и не добро.

Это происходит потому, что бытие и небытие друг друга порождают,

трудное и легкое друг друга создают,

длинное и короткое друг с другом соизмеряются,

высокое и низкое друг с другом сопоставляются,

звук и мелодия друг с другом согласуются,

переднее и заднее друг за другом следуют.

Вот почему совершенномудрый человек правит службу недеяния, ведет учение без слов.

Мириады вещей творит и не уклоняется от этого.

Рождает и не обладает [ими].

Возделывает и ни на что не опирается,

Успешно завершает и не ставит себе это в заслугу.

А поскольку не ставит в заслугу, постольку и не отвергается.

———

[02c95t] Ян Хин-шун

Когда все в Поднебесной узнают, что прекрасное является прекрасным, появляется и безобразное.

Когда все узнают, что доброе является добром, возникает и зло.

Поэтому

бытие и небытие порождают друг друга,

трудное и легкое создают друг друга,

длинное и короткое взаимно соотносятся,

высокое и низкое взаимно определяются,

звуки, сливаясь, приходят в гармонию,

предыдущее и последующее следуют друг за другом.

Поэтому совершенномудрый,

совершая дела, предпочитает недеяние;

осуществляя учение, не прибегает к словам;

вызывая изменения вещей, [он] не осуществляет их сам;

создавая, не обладает [тем, что создано];

приводя в движение, не прилагает к этому усилий;

успешно завершая [что-либо], не гордится.

Поскольку он не гордится, его заслуги не могут быть отброшены.

———

[02c96t] Д. П. Конисси

Под небом все (люди) знают, что красивое есть красивое, но оно только безобразное.

Точно также все знают, что добро есть добро, но оно только зло.

Из бытия и небытия произошло все;

из невозможного и возможного - исполнение;

из длинного и короткого - форма.

Высокое подчиняет себе низшее;

высшие голоса вместе с низшими производят гармонию;

предшествующее подчиняет себе последующее.

Святой муж, будучи бездеятельным, распространяет свое учение.

Вся тварь повинуется ему и никогда не откажется от исполнения его воли.

Он производит много, но ничего не имеет;

делает много, но не хвалится сделанным;

совершает подвиги, но их не приписывает себе.

Он нигде не останавливается, поэтому ему не будет надобности удаляться туда, куда он не желает.

———

[02c97t] В. В. Малявин

Когда в мире узнают, что прекрасное - прекрасно, тотчас появляется уродство.

Когда в мире узнают, что доброе - добро, появляется зло.

Наличное и отсутствующее друг друга порождают.

Трудное и легкое друг друга создают.

Длинное и короткое друг друга выявляют.

Высокое и низкое друг друга устанавливают.

Музыка и голос друг другу откликаются.

Предыдущее и последующее друг за другом следуют.

Так будет всегда.

Посему премудрый человек предается делу недеяния

И претворяет бессловесное учение.

Десять тысяч вещей созидают - и он ничего не отвергает,

Рождают - и он ничем не владеет.

Все свершают - и он за это не держится.

Успехи приходят - и он не помещает себя в них.

Он ни в чем не пребывает - и от него ничто не уходит!

———

[02c98t] Б. Б. Виногродский

В Поднебесной всегда, узнав о красоте, начинают осуществлять красивое.

И вот - уже безобразное.

Всегда, узнав о совершенствовании, начинают осуществлять совершенствование.

И вот - уже не-совершенствование.

Причинность:

В контакте наличия и отсутствия происходит рождение.

В контакте трудного и легкого происходит становление-завершение.

В контакте длинного и короткого появляется форма.

В контакте высокого и низкого происходит потеря равновесия.

В контакте звука и голоса осуществляется согласие.

В контакте переднего и заднего появляется следование.

Это дает:

Человек мудрости пребывает в осуществлении отсутствия.

Таково его дело.

Совершает действия без пояснений словами.

Таково его учение.

Ведь мириады сущностей совершают работу, а нет оформления в словах.

Происходит рождение, а нет обладания.

В осуществлении нет отождествления.

При успешном завершении нет пребывания в этом.

А коли нет пребывания в этом, то нет и исчезновения.


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PSEUDO-CHAPTER Three

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———

[03c01t] Robert G. Henricks

By not elevating the worthy, you bring it about that people will not compete.

By not valuing goods that are hard to obtain, you bring it about that people will not act like thieves.

By not displaying the desirable you bring it about that people will not be confused.

Therefore, in the government of the Sage:

He empties their minds,

And fills their bellies.

Weakens their ambition,

And strengthens their bones.

He constantly causes the people to be without knowledge and without desires.

If he can bring it about that those with knowledge simply do not dare to act,

Then there is nothing that will not be in order.

———

[03c02t] John C. H. Wu

BY not exalting the talented you will cause the people to cease from rivalry and contention.

By not prizing goods hard to get, you will cause the people to cease from robbing and stealing.

By not displaying what is desirable, you will cause the people's hearts to remain undisturbed.

Therefore, the Sage's way of governing begins by

Emptying the heart of desires,

Filling the belly with food,

Weakening the ambitions,

Toughening the bones.

In this way he will cause the people to remain without knowledge and without desire, and prevent the knowing ones from any ado.

Practice Non-Ado, and everything will be in order.

———

[03c03t] D. C. Lau

Not to honour men of worth will keep the people from contention;

not to value goods which are hard to come by will keep them from theft;

not to display what is desirable will keep them from being unsettled of mind.

Therefore in governing the people, the sage empties their minds but fills their bellies, weakens their wills but strengthens their bones.

He always keeps them innocent of knowledge and free from desire, and ensures that the clever never dare to act.

Do that which consists in taking no action, and order will prevail.

———

[03c04t] R. L. Wing

Do not exalt the very gifted, And people will not contend.

Do not treasure goods that are hard to get, And people will not become thieves.

Do not focus on desires, And people's minds will not be confused.

Therefore, Evolved Individuals lead others by Opening their minds,

Reinforcing their centers, Relaxing their desires, Strengthening their characters.

Let the people always act without strategy or desire;

Let the clever not venture to act.

Act without action, And nothing is without order.

———

[03c05t] Ren Jiyu

Refrain from exalting capable men, so that the people shall not compete.

Refrain from valuing rare goods, so that the people shall not steal.

Refrain from displaying anything which arouses desires, so that the people's hearts will not be disturbed.

Therefore the government of (under Heaven) the sage lies in:

Simplifying the people's minds,

Filling their bellies,

Weakening their ambitions,

Strengthening their bones,

And always keeping the people innocent of knowledge and desires.

(Thus) anyone who thinks himself clever is afraid of meddling.

By handling affairs on the principle of nonaction everyone will do well.

———

[03c06t] Gia-fu Feng

Not exalting the gifted prevents quarreling.

Not collecting treasures prevents stealing.

Not seeing desirable things prevents confusion of the heart.

The wise therefore rule by emptying hearts and stuffing bellies,

by weakening ambitions and strengthening bones.

If people lack knowledge and desire, then intellectuals will not try to interfere.

If nothing is done, then all will be well.

———

[03c07t] Lok Sang Ho

The wise ruler treats able men the same as he would treat others.

In so doing he avoids strife.

He plays down precious goods.

In so doing he discourages the emergence of thieves.

He makes an effort to stem the emergence of objects of desire.

In so doing he ensures that his citizens' minds will not be thrown into disarray.

Thus the Sage's governance satisfies the real needs of people,

while emptying their minds of desires;

Builds up the inner strengths (bones) of people

while weakening their vain ambitions.

He would preserve the natural simplicity of his citizens' minds and reduce their desires.

In so doing the clever people will learn that their contrivance will not work.

Because the Sage does nothing but following the law of nature

nothing will deviate from their natural and orderly places.

———

[03c08t] Xiaolin Yang

If you do not worship the nobility, there will be no fighting among people.

If you do not value scarce items, there will be no stealing.

If you do not show people temptations, their hearts will not be wild.

Therefore, the great men's ways of governing people were:

To remove their greed but fill their stomachs,

To weaken their ambition but strengthen their bodies.

Always keep them without knowledge and without desires,

And this prevents those clever manipulators from doing anything.

———

[03c09t] Walter Gorn Old, RESTING THE PEOPLE

Avoiding distinctions of merit among the people prevents jealousy.

Not setting a value on rare things prevents theft.

Not seeking the things of sense keeps the mind in peace.

Thus the Sage governs by ridding the heart of its desires, giving the stomach due satisfaction, by resting the muscles and strengthening the bones, by preserving the world from a knowledge of evil and hence from its desire, and by making those who have such knowledge afraid to use it.

He acts by non-action, and by this he governs all.

———

[03c10t] James Legge

Not to value and employ men of superior ability is the way to keep the people from rivalry among themselves;

not to prize articles which are difficult to procure is the way to keep them from becoming thieves;

not to show them what is likely to excite their desires is the way to keep their minds from disorder.

Therefore the sage, in the exercise of his government, empties their minds, fills their bellies, weakens their wills, and strengthens their bones.

He constantly (tries to) keep them without knowledge and without desire, and where there are those who have knowledge, to keep them from presuming to act (on it).

When there is this abstinence from action, good order is universal.

———

[03c11t] David Hinton

Never bestow honors and people won't quarrel.

Never prize rare treasures and people won't steal.

Never flaunt alluring things and people won't be confused.

This is how a sage governs.

Fill bellies and empty minds,

strengthen bones and weaken ambition,

always keep the people from knowing and wanting,

then those who know are those who never presume to act.

If you're nothing doing what you do all things will be governed well.

———

[03c12t] Chichung Huang

Do not exalt talents

So that the people will not contend;

Do not treasure goods hard to come by

So that the people will not steal;

Do not parade enviable things

So that the people will not rebel.

Hence, when the sage man ruled,

He emptied their minds,

Filled their stomachs,

Weakened their ambitions,

Strengthened their bones.

He constantly made the people

Uncrafty and unlustful,

And made them know not to be daring.

He acted not, that is all.

Thus, the state cannot but become well-ruled.

———

[03c13t] Ellen M. Chen

Do not honor (shang) the worthy (hsien),

So that the people will not contend (cheng) with one another.

Do not value (kuei) hard-to-get goods,

So that the people will not turn robbers.

Do not show objects of desire (k'o yό),

So that the people's minds (hsin) are not disturbed.

Therefore, when the sage rules:

He empties the minds (hsin) of his people,

Fills their bellies,

Weakens their wills (chih),

And strengthens their bones.

Always he keeps his people in no-knowledge (wu-chih) and no-desire (wu-yό),

Such that he who knows dares not act.

Act by no-action (wu-wei),

Then, nothing is not in order.

———

[03c14t] Lee Sun Chen Org

[A Sage] would not exalt sages [with honor and benefit] for the purpose of preventing sapiens from [connivingly] contending [for the title out of vanity];

[He] would not promote hard-to-get goods so that people will not [be tempted to] rob and steal;

[He] would keep sense-appealing objects out of people's sight so that people's hearts (minds) will not be confused.

Accordingly,

A Sage rules with the following measure:

Humbling people's heart [to weed out prejudices and conceit from their minds, so that they are prepared for the reception of true knowledge];

Filling up people's stomachs;

Weakening people's [selfish and improper] desires;

Strengthening people's backbones [for the quest of truth].

[A Sage] would constantly keep people away from [unaccountable] knowledge and [selfish] desires;

By doing so, sly and artful people will not dare to muddle through;

Practicing the principle of non-interference with utmost diligence will bring about orderly and even-handed management.

———

[03c15t] Tien Cong Tran

Do not exalt the talented, and the people cease from rivalry and contention.

Do not prize goods hard to get, and the people cease from robbing and stealing.

Do not display what is desirable, and the people's hearts remain undisturbed.

Therefore, the sage's way of governing is: emptying the mind, filling the belly, weakening the will, toughening the bones.

In this way he will cause the people to remain without knowledge and without desire, and prevent the knowing ones from any doing.

Doing "non-doing", and everything will be in order.

———

[03c16t] Thomas Z. Zhang

Do not glorify the elite, and people will not compete.

Do not treasure rare things, and people will not steal them.

Do not let people see things that induce desire, and people will not commit crimes.

Thus,

the sage will make people know less, but feed them well;

make them less ambitious, but physically strong;

make people less knowledgeable and have less desire.

This way, even knowledgeable people would not dare to have ambition.

Do not coerce people, and then they are not difficult to rule.

———

[03c17t] Arthur Waley

If we stop looking for 'persons of superior morality' (hsien) to put in power, there will be no more jealousies among the people.

If we cease to set store by products that are hard to get, there will be no more thieves.

If the people never see such things as excite desire, their hearts will remain placid and undisturbed.

Therefore the Sage rules

By emptying their hearts

And filling their bellies,

Weakening their intelligence

And toughening their sinews

Ever striving to make the people knowledgeless and desireless.

Indeed he sees to it that if there be any who have knowledge, they dare not interfere.

Yet through his actionless activity all things are duly regulated.

———

[03c18t] Richard John Lynn

Do not exalt the worthy [xian], and so keep the common folk from contention.

Do not value goods hard to get, and so stop the common folk from becoming thieves.

Do not let them see desirable things, and so spare the hearts/minds of the common folk from disorder.

Therefore the way the sage governs is to keep their hearts/minds empty and their bellies full.

He keeps their wills weak and their bones strong.

He always keeps the common folk free from the capacity for knowing and from feeling desire.

And prevents the knowledgeable from ever daring to act.

Because he acts without conscious effort, nothing remains ungoverned.

———

[03c19t] Lin Yutang

ACTION WITHOUT DEEDS

Exalt not the wise,

So that the people shall not scheme and contend;

Prize not rare objects,

So that the people shall not steal;

Shut out from sight the things of desire,

So that the people's hearts shall not be disturbed.

Therefore in the government of the Sage:

He keeps empty their hearts,

Makes full their bellies,

Discourages their ambitions,

Strengthens their frames;

So that the people may be innocent of knowledge and desires,

And the cunning ones shall not presume to interfere.

By action without deeds

May all live in peace.

———

[03c20t] Victor H. Mair

Not exalting men of worth prevents the people from competing;

Not putting high value on rare goods prevents the people from being bandits;

Not displaying objects of desire prevents the people from being disorderly.

For these reasons,

The sage, in ruling,

hollows their hearts,

stuffs their stomachs,

weakens their wills,

builds up their bones,

Always causing the people to be without knowledge and desire.

He ensures that the knowledgeable dare not be hostile,

and that is all.

Thus,

His rule is universal.

———

[03c21t] Tolbert McCarroll

Not exalting the talented prevents rivalry.

Not valuing goods that are hard to obtain prevents stealing.

Not displaying desirable things prevents confusion of the heart.

Therefore,

the True Person governs by

emptying the heart of desire

and filling the belly with food,

weakening ambitions

and strengthening bones.

If the people are simple and free from desire,

then the clever ones never dare to interfere.

Practice action without striving and all will be in order.

———

[03c22t] David H. Li

Where admiration is not bestowed upon the wise,

the populace will not compete for recognition.

Where premium is not placed on rare goods,

the populace will not engage in robbery.

Where desirable items are not on display,

the populace will not be tempted.

Thus,

the sage governs by cleansing [the populace's] hearts,

filling their stomachs,

taming their will,

and strengthening their bodies

- to induce the populace, in time, not to indulge in knowledge nor to cultivate avarice.

So prepared, those with wisdom dare not offer schemes, and laissez-faire governance follows.

With that, no affair is beyond governance.

———

[03c23t] Yasuhiko Genku Kimura

When the learned is not over esteemed,

There will not be unnecessary competition amongst people.

When the treasure is not over valued,

There will not be acts of stealing amongst people.

When we do not show people things that stir up their wants,

Their minds will not be disturbed.

Therefore, the sage governs the people by

Restoring balance in value and worth, through

Emptying people's minds and filling their essence,

Weakening their ambition and strengthening their character,

Freeing them from knowledge and wants, and

Keeping the learned from over exercising their authority.

Act in accordance with the principle of non-action - of eternal balance,

Then order will arise of itself.

———

[03c24t] Chou-Wing Chohan

If the exalted are not praised, the humble will not put on airs.

When rare things are not assigned a value, the thief has no reason to steal them.

When the desired object is not shown, the heart has no reason to covet it.

Therefore the sage says:

By emptying their hearts

By filling their stomachs

By weakening their ambition

By strengthening their bones,

He prevents them from knowing what evil is and yearning for good, and this also prevents the knowledgeable ones from acting according to their knowledge.

He governs by non-action,

And therefore, there is nothing that cannot be done.

Non-quiet and non-order in the world are caused by ambition to attain the unattainable,

and by plotting to go from the undesired to the desired.

If people would obey the laws of the world the way the sage does, there would always be balance between body and soul, and peace and serenity would abound in the world.

———

[03c25t] Man-Ho Kwok

If the sage refuses to be proud

Then people won't compete for his attention;

If the sage does not buy treasures

Then the people won't want to steal them;

If the sage governs with vision

Then his people will not go wrong.

So in his wisdom, he restrains himself:

- by not being greedy for food

- by not dominating the State

- by keeping himself healthy and fit.

The sage always makes sure that the people don't know what he's done, so they never want to be in control - and are never driven by ambition.

He keeps them in truth like this acting invisibly.

You see, if there is nothing to fight for

then there is nothing that can break the flow.

———

[03c26t] Gu Zhengkun

Keep the people from contention by disregarding men of abilities;

Keep the people from theft by not valuing rare goods;

Keep the people from the disturbed state of mind by concealing what is desirable.

That is why in governing the people

The sage simplifies their minds but fills up their stomachs;

weakens their wills, but strengthens their bones.

By keeping the people from knowledge and desires,

He disables wise men from taking any active action.

Act in accordance with this principle of inaction

And the world will be kept in order everywhere.

———

[03c27t] Chao-Hsiu Chen

Not to value one's own virtues is the way to restrain people from striving for wealth.

Not to value the precious is the way to restrain people from theft.

Not to see the desirable is the way to restrain confusion in the mind.

Therefore the wise way to rule is:

not to give importance to oneself,

or try to enrich one's spirit and virtue;

not to be inordinately proud of one's ability,

or try to make unceasing efforts to improve oneself.

Let the people stay free from desire and knowledge in order to avoid the pitfalls that knowledge may bring.

Rule by doing nothing, then everything will be as it should.

———

[03c28t] Liu Qixuan

Worship no sage,

And people will not struggle for vanity.

Treasure no rare goods,

And people will not steal them.

Dangle no tantalizer,

And people will not be confused in mind and will.

Therefore,

The wise politics fills the stomach rather than the mind,

Strengthens the bones and muscles rather than the will,

And enables people to be rather than to desire to be.

Indeed, it is through doing nothing misleading

That the greatest political success can be achieved.

———

[03c29t] Shi Fu Hwang

Acting Without The Intent To Control Fate

Lao Tze says,

When I don't promote those men of high character to the position of authority and give them gifts, then people will not strive to follow their examples.

When I don't value those things which are difficult to attain, then people will be kept from becoming thieves.

When I don't let people see things which will excite evil desires, their minds will be kept from becoming disordered.

Therefore, when a sage is in charge of the government, he prefers to humble people's minds, feed their stomachs, weaken their ambitions, and make their frames strong.

He constantly keeps them from knowledge and from desire, and those who have knowledge would not presume to act against this rule.

When practicing acting without the intent to control fate, there is no evil which can't be cured.

———

[03c30t] Ch’u Ta-Kao

Not exalting the worthy keeps the people from emulation.

Not valuing rare things keeps them from theft.

Not showing what is desirable keeps their hearts from confusion.

Therefore the Sage rules

By emptying their hearts,

Filling their stomachs,

Weakening their ambitions

And strengthening their bones.

He always keeps them from knowing what is evil and desiring what is good; thus he gives the crafty ones no chance to act.

He governs by non-action; consequently there is nothing un-governed.

———

[03c31t] Paul J. Lin

Exalt not the worthy, so that the people will not fight.

Prize not the rare treasure, so that they will not steal.

Exhibit not the desirable, so that their hearts will not be distracted.

Therefore in governing, the Sage

empties the people's hearts and fills their stomachs,

weakens their will and strengthens their bones.

He always keeps them void of knowledge and desire, so that those who know will not dare to act.

Acting through inaction, he leaves nothing ungoverned.

———

[03c32t] Michael LaFargue

Not promoting the wise and worthy,

brings it about that the people are not contentious.

Not prizing goods hard to come by,

brings it about that the people do not become thieves.

Not paying attention to the desirable,

brings it about that the people's minds do not become disordered.

And so, the government of the Wise Person:

Empty their minds, fill their bellies,

weaken their ambitions, strengthen their bones.

Always bring it about that the people

are without knowledge and without desires.

Bring it about that the clever ones

do not presume to set about doing.

Do Not Doing,

and nothing will be left un-governed.

———

[03c33t] Cheng Lin

When talents are not esteemed, men will not strive to excel one another.

When wealth is not treasured, men will not attempt to rob one another.

When the objects of sensual satisfaction disappear, men's minds are free from distraction and confusion.

Wherefore the Sage, as regards government, wishes only that it will enable men to be humble at heart, well-fed in body, free from sensuous desires, and strong in physique.

When the people are free of cunning, desires, and artifice, there must be good order.

———

[03c34t] Yi Wu

[The ruler] not exalting talent, the people will not compete;

[The ruler] not valuing rare goods, the people will not steal;

[The ruler] not displaying desirable things, the people's hearts will not be disturbed.

Therefore, the sage's government:

empties their hearts,

fills their bellies,

weakens their wills,

strengthens their bones.

He always causes the people to have no knowledge and no desires

And causes those who are clever to not dare to act.

Acting by non-action, nothing will not be governed well.

———

[03c35t] Han Hiong Tan

Do not venerate the intelligentsia,

So that people will not rival.

Do not value rare objects,

So that people will not steal.

Do not display any desirable goods,

So that people will not be tempted.

Therefore, the sage rules the people by

Emptying their hearts, filling their stomachs,

Diminishing their desires and strengthening their bones.

He constantly makes people devoid of cunning and ambition,

So much so that even a rabid rabble-rouser among them

Is not able to stir up any trouble.

By practising non-action,

The rule will be peaceful.

———

[03c36t] Hua-Ching Ni

When the superior are not exalted, envy will not be aroused.

Then there will be no rivalry or contention among people.

When wealth is not treasured, desire for possessions will not be stirred up.

Then people will not be tempted to rob one another.

By shutting that which is desirable out of sight, the heart will remain undisturbed.

Then there will be no confusion in the hearts of people.

The guidance of the Universal One of natural wholeness is therefore:

Empty your mind.

Enjoy good health.

Weaken your ambitions.

Strengthen your essence.

When people are free from cunning, desire, and artifice, everything will be well-ordered of its own accord.

———

[03c37t] Chang Chung-yuan

If no one esteems the best, men will be free from contention.

If no one values the precious, men will be free from illegal gain.

If men see nothing to desire, their minds will be free from confusion.

Therefore, the wise guides men by relaxing their minds and keeping their bellies firm;

By reducing their wills and letting their physiques become strong.

He always frees men from the search for knowing and demanding.

This means that the knower dares not act for the known.

When action is through non-action, no one is uncultivated.

———

[03c38t] Henry Wei

Peace to the People

An Min

Do not exalt the worthy,

So that the people will not contend.

Do not treasure hard-to-get objects,

So that the people will not become thieves.

Keep what is desirable out of sight,

So that their heart will not get excited.

Therefore, in ruling the people the Sage

Empties their hearts,

Fills their bellies,

Weakens their aspirations,

Strengthens their bones.

He always makes them guileless and desireless,

And makes the guileful ones afraid to interfere.

Practice non-interference,

And there will never be any misrule.

———

[03c39t] Ha Poong Kim

If you do not exalt the worthy,

You will keep the people from contention.

If you do not treasure rare goods,

You will keep them from stealing.

If you do not exhibit things that may arouse their desire,

You will keep their minds in peace.

Therefore the sage, in governing the people,

Makes their minds empty,

Their stomachs full,

Their ambitions weak,

Their bones strong.

———

[03c40t] Tao Huang

Do not exalt intelligence and people will not compete;

Do not value rare goods and people will not steal;

Do not display for public view and people will not desire.

So the sage's governing methods are:

Emptying the mind,

Vitalizing the stomach,

Softening the will,

Strengthening the character.

This always makes people not know and not desire.

This always makes the knower dare not act.

Therefore, nothing is beyond ruling.

———

[03c41t] Tang Zi-chang

Promote no exalted persons, thus enabling the people to cease competition.

Prize no rare goods, thus enabling the people to cease robbery.

Don't display desirable things.

Let people's minds be undisturbed.

A Sage ruler enabled them to be tranquil in their hearts;

be filled in their stomachs;

be weakened in their ambitions;

be strengthened in their will.

He made them less intelligent and less desirous.

If intelligent people are made afraid of doing wrong, then no one in the world can not be governed.

———

[03c42t] Wing-tsit Chan

Do not exalt the worthy, so that the people shall not compete.

Do not value rare treasures, so that the people shall not steal.

Do not display objects of desire, so that the people's hearts shall not be disturbed.

Therefore in the government of the sage,

He keeps their hearts vacuous,

Fills their bellies,

Weakens their ambitions,

And strengthens their bones.

He always causes his people to be without knowledge (cunning) or desire,

And the crafty to be afraid to act.

By acting without action, all things will be in order.

———

[03c91t] И. И. Семененко

Когда не возвышают лучших, в народе нет соперничества;

когда не ценят редкие товары, в народе не бывает воровства;

когда устраняют все соблазны, сердце народа не находится в смятении.

Вот почему Премудрый человек при наведении порядка делает сердца людей пустыми, а желудки полными, стремления слабыми, а кости крепкими.

Он неизменно побуждает народ пребывать без знаний и желаний.

А на знающих влияет так, что они не смеют действовать.

Когда приводят в действие бездействие, то неизбежно добиваются порядка.

———

[03c92t] А. А. Маслов

Не превозноси мудрых - и люди не будут соперничать.

Не цени редкие вещи - и не будут красть.

Не гляди на то, что возбуждает желания, и сердца людей не придут в смятение.

Поэтому, управляя людьми, мудрец опустошает их сердца и наполняет желудки;

ослабляет их волю, но усиливает их кости;

постоянно стремится к тому, чтобы они были незатронуты знаниями и свободны от желаний,

а те, кто освящён мудростью, не помышляли о действии.

Действуй недеянием - и не будет того, что не управлялось бы тобой.

———

[03c93t] Е. А. Торчинов

Не почитайте мудрецов, и ссор не будет меж людьми.

Не цените труднодоступные товары, и люди не пойдут разбойничать и грабить.

Не устремляйте взор на вожделенное, и не смутится ваше сердце.

Вот совершенномудрый управляет так:

опустошает подданных сердца, но наполняет животы им,

их волю-самочинность ослабляет, взамен их кости укрепляя.

Всегда стремится он, чтоб у народа не было ни знаний, ни желаний, а знающие чтобы действовать не смели.

Творит недеяние он, но нет на свете ничего, не приведенного им в порядок.

———

[03c94t] А. Е. Лукьянов

Не превозносите достойных (талантливых), чтобы люди не соперничали.

Не цените трудно добываемого богатства, чтобы люди не становились разбойниками.

Не показывайте могущее вызвать страсть, чтобы сердца людей не трепетали.

Вот почему правление совершенномудрого человека состоит в следующем:

опустошай свое сердце,

наполняй свой живот,

ослабляй свою волю,

укрепляй свои кости.

Постоянство ведет к тому, что люди не будут иметь знаний, не будут иметь страстей;

ведет к тому, что мужи мудрствующие не посмеют деять.

Деяй недеяние, и тогда не будет неуправляемого.

———

[03c95t] Ян Хин-шун

Если не почитать мудрецов, то в народе не будет ссор.

Если не ценить редких предметов, то не будет воров среди народа.

Если не показывать того, что может вызвать зависть, то не будут волноваться сердца народа.

Поэтому, управляя [страной], совершенномудрый делает сердца [подданных] пустыми, а желудки - полными.

[Его управление] ослабляет их волю и укрепляет их кости.

Оно постоянно стремится к тому, чтобы у народа не было знаний и страстей, а имеющие знания не смели бы действовать.

Осуществление недеяния всегда приносит спокойствие.

———

[03c96t] Д. П. Конисси

Чтобы не было ссор в народе, нужно не уважать мудрецов.

Чтобы люди не сделались ворами, нужно не придавать никакого значения трудно добываемым (ценным) предметам, потому что когда люди не будут иметь тех предметов, которые бы прельстили их сердца, они никогда не соблазнятся ими.

Отсюда, когда святой муж управляет страной, то сердце его пусто, а тело его полно;

(он) ослабляет желания и укрепляет (свои) кости.

Он старается, чтобы народ был в невежестве и без страстей.

Также он старается, чтобы мудрые не смели сделать чего-нибудь.

Когда все сделаются бездеятельными, то (на земле) будет полное спокойствие.

———

[03c97t] В. В. Малявин

Не возвышайте "достойных" - тогда люди не будут соперничать.

Не цените редкостные товары - тогда люди не будут разбойничать.

Не выставляйте напоказ привлекательные вещи - тогда в людских сердцах не будет смущения.

Вот почему премудрый человек, управляя людьми,

Опустошает их головы

И наполняет их животы,

Ослабляет их стремления

И укрепляет их кости.

Он всегда делает так, что у людей нет ни знаний, ни желаний,

А знающие не осмеливаются что-либо предпринять.

Действуй неделанием - и во всем будет порядок.

———

[03c98t] Б. Б. Виногродский

Если не восхвалять умелость, тогда народ не соперничает.

Если не придавать ценности трудно достающимся товарам, тогда в народе не будет воровства.

Если не смотреть на то, что может вызвать стремление, тогда в сердце-сознании народа не будет смуты.

Это дает:

Человек мудрости, упорядочивая -

Поддерживает состояние пустоты в своем сердце-сознании.

Поддерживает ощущение полноты в своем животе.

Делает слабыми свои волеустремления.

Делает сильными свои кости.

Постоянство позволяет народу пребывать в отсутствии знания и отсутствии стремления.

Это приводит к тому, что даже знающий не осмеливается осуществлять-действовать.

Когда осуществляется осуществление отсутствия, тогда отсутствует беспорядок.


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PSEUDO-CHAPTER Four

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———

[04c01t] Robert G. Henricks

The Way is empty;

Yet when you use it, you never need fill it again.

Like an abyss! It seems to be the ancestor of the ten thousand things.

It files down sharp edges;

Unties the tangles;

Softens the glare;

And settles the dust.

Submerged! It seems perhaps to exist.

We don't know whose child it is;

It seems to have [even] preceded the Lord.

———

[04c02t] John C. H. Wu

THE Tao is like an empty bowl,

Which in being used can never be filled up.

Fathomless, it seems to be the origin of all things.

It blunts all sharp edges,

It unties all tangles,

It harmonizes all lights,

It unites the world into one whole.

Hidden in the deeps,

Yet it seems to exist forever.

I do not know whose child it is;

It seems to be the common ancestor of all, the father of things.

———

[04c03t] D. C. Lau

The way is empty, yet use will not drain it.

Deep, it is like the ancestor of the myriad creatures.

Blunt the sharpness;

Untangle the knots;

Soften the glare;

Let your wheels move only along old ruts.

Darkly visible, it only seems as if it were there.

I know not whose son it is.

It images the forefather of God.

———

[04c04t] R. L. Wing

The Tao is empty and yet useful;

Somehow it never fills up.

So profound!

It resembles the source of All Things.

It blunts the sharpness,

Unties the tangles,

And harmonizes the brightness.

It identifies with the ways of the world.

So deep!

It resembles a certain existence.

I do not know whose offspring it is, This Image in front of the source.

———

[04c05t] Ren Jiyu

Tao is invisible, but its usefulness cannot be exhausted.

It is so fathomless, like the ancestor of all things.

It covers its cutting edge,

It transcends entanglement,

It contains its light,

It mixes with its dust.

It has no form or image, but actually it exists.

I don't know where it was born of,

(I only know) it appeared before the Lord.

———

[04c06t] Gia-fu Feng

The Tao is an empty vessel; it is used, but never filled.

Oh, unfathomable source of ten thousand things!

Blunt the sharpness,

Untangle the knot,

Soften the glare,

Merge with dust.

Oh, hidden deep but ever present!

I do not know from whence it comes.

It is the forefather of the emperors.

———

[04c07t] Lok Sang Ho

The Way (Dao) is like water that simmers slowly,

perpetually emitting its energy without boiling over.

It is like a deep, deep pool in the mountains,

unfathomable yet could well harbor the origin of all life forms.

It can blunt sharp angles,

resolve disputes,

soften light that otherwise dazzles,

re-establish concordance where there is discord.

Unfathomable, who would know its existence?

Today I know of no child of anyone

who resembles our ancient forefathers.

(Who followed the Dao).

———

[04c08t] Xiaolin Yang

The DAO looks empty, but it can last forever.

It is so deep, it can be the ancestor of everything.

It dulls its sharpness, unties itself from the outside world,

Dims its brightness, and makes itself like dust.

It is so elusive, yet seems present.

I do not know its origin;

It should exist before the God that people worship.

———

[04c09t] Walter Gorn Old, THE CAUSELESS

Tao is without limitation; its depth is the source of whatsoever is.

It makes sharp things round, it brings order out of chaos, it obscures the brilliant, it is wholly without attachment.

I know not who gave it birth; it is more ancient than God.

———

[04c10t] James Legge

The Tao is (like) the emptiness of a vessel;

and in our employment of it we must be on our guard against all fulness.

How deep and unfathomable it is, as if it were the Honoured Ancestor of all things!

We should blunt our sharp points, and unravel the complications of things;

we should attemper our brightness, and bring ourselves into agreement with the obscurity of others.

How pure and still the Tao is, as if it would ever so continue!

I do not know whose son it is.

It might appear to have been before God.

———

[04c11t] David Hinton

Way is empty.

Use it: it never needs filling.

An abyss so deep

it seems ancestor to the ten thousand things,

it blunts edges, loosens tangles, softens glare, mingles dust.

A clarity so clear it only seems real,

whose child could it be?

Apparently it precedes gods and creators.

———

[04c12t] Chichung Huang

The Tao is the empty space of a vessel,

Yet, when used,

Never brims over.

How deep,

Like the ten thousand things' progenitor!

It files its sharpness,

Unravels its entanglements,

Softens its brightness,

And mingles with the dust.

How transparent,

As if existing!

I do not know whose son it was;

Seemed to precede the Emperor.

———

[04c13t] Ellen M. Chen

Tao is a whirling emptiness (ch'ung),

Yet (erh) in use (yung) is inexhaustible (ying).

Fathomless (yuan),

It seems to be the ancestor (tsung) of ten thousand beings.

It blunts the sharp,

Unties the entangled,

Harmonizes the bright,

Mixes the dust.

Dark (chan),

It seems perhaps to exist (ts'un).

I do not know whose child it is,

It is an image (hsiang) of what precedes God (Ti).

———

[04c14t] Lee Sun Chen Org

Tao [in physical world] is like an empty vessel;

Yet when comes to making use of it, its usefulness would go on and on as if it will never be exhausted.

The profundity [of Tao] is as fathomless as an abyss;

It appears [to me] to be the source of all and every thing and creature [in this world].

[Equilibrium is maintained by followers of Tao in the following fashion:]

It rounds off [hurtful] sharp [edges];

It unties the entangled (disputes);

It tampers the [disturbing blazing] light;

It coalesces with the earthy.

[Tao] is so unfathomable [laying beneath the phenomenon] that in all likelihood it exists!

I do not know whose offspring it is;

But I know that it existed prior to, as well as surpassed, the [Five] Phenomenon Gods [who were worshipped as heavenly governors of changing of seasons].

———

[04c15t] Tien Cong Tran

The Way is like an empty bowl, which is never used up.

Fathomless, it seems to be the origin of all things.

It blunts all sharp edges; it unties all tangles; it harmonizes all lights; it unites the worldly dusts.

Hidden in the deeps, yet it seems to exist forever.

I do not know whose child it is; it seems to be the common ancestor of all, the father of things.

———

[04c16t] Thomas Z. Zhang

Tao is abstract, their applicability is inexhaustible.

Abyss appears to be the origin of everything.

Deepness appears to be where the intangible exists.

Smoothening sharp edges;

Resolving conflicts;

Harmonizing glares;

Blending into the earth.

I do not know from where the theory comes, it appears to come from our late ancestors.

———

[04c17t] Arthur Waley

The Way is like an empty vessel

That yet may be drawn from

Without ever needing to be filled.

It is bottomless; the very progenitor of all things in the world.

In it all sharpness is blunted,

All tangles untied,

All glare tempered,

All dust smoothed.

It is like a deep pool that never dries.

Was it too the child of something else?

We cannot tell.

But as a substanceless image it existed before the Ancestor.

———

[04c18t] Richard John Lynn

The vessel of the Dao is empty, so use it but do not try to refill it.

It is such an abyss, oh, that it appears to be the progenitor of the myriad things.

It blunts the sharp, cuts away the tangled, merges with the brilliant, and becomes one with the very dust.

Its depth is so deep, oh, that it seems somehow to exist.

I do not know whose child it could be, for it appears to have been born before the Lord.

———

[04c19t] Lin Yutang

THE CHARACTER OF TAO

Tao is a hollow vessel,

And its use is inexhaustible!

Fathomless!

Like the fountain head of all things.

Its sharp edges rounded off,

Its tangles untied,

Its light tempered,

Its turmoil submerged,

Yet dark like deep water it seems to remain.

I do not know whose Son it is,

An image of what existed before God.

———

[04c20t] Victor H. Mair

The Way is empty, yet never refills with use;

Bottomless it is, like the forefather of the myriad creatures.

It files away sharp points,

unravels tangles,

diffuses light,

mingles with the dust.

Submerged it lies,

seeming barely to subsist.

I know not whose child it is,

only that it resembles the predecessor of God.

———

[04c21t] Tolbert McCarroll

The Tao is like an empty bowl,

yet it may be used without ever needing to be filled.

It is the deep and unfathomable source of the ten thousand things.

Blunt the sharpness.

Untie the knot.

Soften the glare.

Settle with the dust.

It is hidden deep yet ever present.

I do not know whose child it is.

It existed before the common ancestor.

———

[04c22t] David H. Li

Direction is the hollow.

Regardless of use, it is inexhaustible.

So unfathomable, as if the source of all matters.

So deep, as if it exists.

I do not know whose offspring Direction is;

it precedes kings.

———

[04c23t] Yasuhiko Genku Kimura

Empty of all doctrines,

The Tao is wisdom eternally inexhaustible.

Fathomless for the mere intellect,

The Tao is the law wherewith all things come into being.

It blunts the edges of the intellect,

Untangles the knots of the mind,

Softens the glare of thinking,

And settles the dust of thought.

Transparent yet invisible,

The Tao exists like deep pellucid water.

Its origin is unknown,

For it existed before Heaven and Earth.

———

[04c24t] Chou-Wing Chohan

The Tao, if you examine it, will always be empty and will never be full.

In its infinite emptiness lies the source of all things,

It will remain in its depths forever.

I don't know whose seed it is,

But it looks like the predecessor of the universe itself.

———

[04c25t] Man-Ho Kwok

The Tao pours out everything into life -

it is a cornucopia that never runs dry.

It is the deep source of everything -

it is nothing, and yet in everything.

It smooths round sharpness and untangles the knots.

It glows like the lamp that draws the moth ...

Tao exists, Tao is

but where It came from I do not know.

It has been shaping things from before the First Being,

from the before the Beginning of Time.

———

[04c26t] Gu Zhengkun

The Tao is invisibly empty,

But its use is extremely plentiful.

It is profound like the originator of all things.

It shows no sharpness,

stays away from entanglements,

glows with veiled radiance,

mingles with dust.

It is formless and invisible, but indeed exists.

I do not know where it comes,

It seems to have appeared before the existence of God.

———

[04c27t] Chao-Hsiu Chen

The Tao is based on harmony between emptiness and abundance.

It is the deep source of the myriad creatures.

It softens their sharpness.

It releases their confusion.

It lessens their lustre.

It merges with their dust.

The Tao is so clear and so transparent that it is nearly invisible, nearly formless;

no one can know its origin,

for it came before all creation.

———

[04c28t] Liu Qixuan

The Way is open for endless use

And will never fill up.

Like an endless valley

It blunts the sharpness,

Dissolves the currents,

Softens the intense light,

Assimilates all substances.

Is it being or non-being?

I don't know which son takes after which father.

———

[04c29t] Shi Fu Hwang

The Character Of The Tao

Lao Tze says,

The Tao in the void state works on everything.

It guards against fullness.

Its depth is unfathomable, as if it were the honored ancestor of all things.

It blunts the sharp points, sets in order the tangles, tempers the light, and agrees with the obscurity of others.

How pure and still the Tao is, as if it would ever stand.

I do not know its origin, and it seems to have existed before the coming of all gods.

———

[04c30t] Ch’u Ta-Kao

Tao, when put in use for its hollowness, is not likely to be filled.

In its profundity it seems to be the origin of all things.

In its depth it seems ever to remain.

I do not know whose offspring it is;

But it looks like the predecessor of Nature.

———

[04c31t] Paul J. Lin

Tao is empty, used yet never filled.

It is deep, like the forefather of all things.

It dulls sharpness, and sorts tangles,

Blends with the light, becoming one with the dust.

So serene, as if it hardly existed.

I do not know whose son it is.

It seems to have preceded God.

———

[04c32t] Michael LaFargue

Tao being Empty,

it seems one who uses it will lack solidity.

An abyss,

it seems something like the ancestor of the thousands of things.

It dampens the passion,

it unties the tangles,

it makes the flashing things harmonious,

it makes the dust merge together.

Deep,

it is perhaps like an enduring something.

I don't know of anything whose offspring it might be -

it appears to precede God.

———

[04c33t] Cheng Lin

Truth may appear hollow, but its usefulness is inexhaustible.

It is so profound that it comprehends all things.

It is so vague that its very existence may seem doubtful.

I do not know its origin, but I believe that its existence preceded that of the gods.

———

[04c34t] Yi Wu

The Way appears empty;

in use, it may not overflow.

Fathomless, it seems to be the ancestor of all things.

It blunts its own sharpness,

unties its own tangles,

tempers its own brightness,

unites itself with dust.

Deep but clear, it seems to exist and not to exist.

I do not know whose son it is.

It symbolizes that which precedes the Creator.

———

[04c35t] Han Hiong Tan

Dao is akin to an empty vessel.

It is inexhaustible, as if the vessel can never be filled completely.

So deep and unfathomable,

It must be from where all things come forth.

Dao blunts its own sharpness,

Simplifies its own complexity,

Attenuates its own brilliance,

And mingles with the dirt.

Vast and profound, it appears that it could go on forever.

I do not know whose progeny it is.

It was there before the existence of the creator.

———

[04c36t] Hua-Ching Ni

The subtle Way of the universe appears to lack strength,

yet its power is inexhaustible.

Fathomless, it could be the origin of all things.

It has no sharpness,

yet it rounds off all sharp edges.

It has no form,

yet it unties all tangles.

It has no glare,

yet it merges all lights.

It harmonizes all things and unites them as one integral whole.

It seems so obscure,

yet it is the Ultimate Clarity.

Whose offspring it is can never be known.

It is that which existed before any divinity.

———

[04c37t] Chang Chung-yuan

Tao functions through its nothingness.

And can not be conceived of as full of things.

Profound indeed, it is the model of all things.

Dulling its sharpness,

Releasing its entanglements,

Tempering its light, and

Unifying with the earth,

Clearly, indeed, it remains.

I do not know who created it,

But it is likely that it existed prior to God.

———

[04c38t] Henry Wei

Source Non-Existent

Wu Yuan

Tao is hollow, yet its utility

Seems unlikely to reach the limit.

Profound indeed it is;

It seems to be the fount of all things.

It blunts the sharp;

It unravels the tangled;

It harmonizes with the light;

It mingles with the dust.

Calm like a deep pool it seems to remain.

I do not know whose son it is.

It apparently antecedes the Creator.

———

[04c39t] Ha Poong Kim

Tao is empty,

You may use it but never fill it.

Fathomless, it is like the progenitor of the ten thousand things.

[It] blunts the sharpness,

Unravels the tangles,

Softens the brilliance,

Identifies with the dust.

Deep and still, it seems as though existing forever.

I don't know whose son it is.

It bears the image of God's forefather.

———

[04c40t] Tao Huang

Tao functions in empty harmony.

When used, it remains full.

For sure, this source is the very ancestor of the myriad things.

Blunting the sharp edges,

Unraveling the tangles,

Husbanding into the light,

Being as ordinary as the dust.

Ah! Limpid, it seems to exist forever.

I do not know whose son it is,

This who is exceeding the Heavenly Emperor.

———

[04c41t] Tang Zi-chang

Dao is charged to produce these gases into orderly use.

The eternal capacity will never overflow.

Profoundly!

It is the ancestor of All Things!

It blunts all sharpness;

it settles all disputes;

it harmonizes all lights and it unites all lands.

The clear mind will be constantly receptive.

We do not know whose descent it is.

It existed before all phenomena and all lives.

———

[04c42t] Wing-tsit Chan

Tao is empty (like a bowl).

It may be used but its capacity is never exhausted.

It is bottomless, perhaps the ancestor of all things.

It blunts its sharpness.

It unties its tangles.

It softens its light.

It becomes one with the dusty world.

Deep and still, it appears to exist forever.

I do not know whose son it is.

It seems to have existed before the Lord.

———

[04c91t] И. И. Семененко